Antibiogram and susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates of urinary tract infection among children and adolescents at a tertiary care hospital


  • Salman Arshad Khawaja Muhammad Safdar Medical College (Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital), Sialkot Pakistan
  • Shahid Rasheed Khawaja Muhammad Safdar Medical College (Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital), Sialkot Pakistan
  • Mudassar Hussain Khawaja Muhammad Safdar Medical College (Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital), Sialkot Pakistan
  • Saqib Munir Khawaja Muhammad Safdar Medical College (Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital), Sialkot Pakistan
  • Nadia Qamar Khawaja Muhammad Safdar Medical College (Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital), Sialkot Pakistan
  • Abdul Sattar Khawaja Muhammad Safdar Medical College (Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital), Sialkot Pakistan



Background: UTI is one of the major causes of morbidity among children and adolescents in developing countries like Pakistan, where precise knowledge of causative micro-organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns remains inadequate. To identify common organisms involved in urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns among children & adolescents.

Material and Methods : This retrospective descriptive study was conducted on urine cultures reports of children less than 18 year presented with suspected UTI in Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital between the periods of January 2020 to December 2022 were taken. Urine sample cultured on CLED agar plates, micro-organism were identified by performing their morphological & biochemical tests.

Results: Urine culture reports of 500 patients of age <18 years with suspected UTI were collected, out of which 102 were positive. The most common age for UTI was 5-11 years. The ratio of boys and girls was 30 and 72 respectively. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial species were recovered. The ratio of gram negative to gram positive was 94 and 8 respectively. Among Gram-negative bacterial species, E. coli was the most common organism. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of E. coli showed that susceptibility to commonly prescribed drugs as follows Gentamicin (80%), co-amoxiclav (52%), Trimethoprim- Sulfamethoxazole (19%), Cephalosporin’s (8%), and Amoxicillin (5%). Susceptibility to Nitrofurantoin & Fosfomycin was 80% and 63% respectively.

Conclusion: E.coli was the most common organism Isolated. Co-amoxiclav, Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin have good susceptibility profile among the oral drugs and Gentamicin has high susceptibility among injectables.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection, Antibiotic sensitivity, Urine culture


Khatoon I, Khanam S, Azam A, Qadeer S, Naz S, Hassan NU. et al. Incidence pattern, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of bacterial uropathogens among general population of Pakistan. Infect Drug Resist. 2023; 16: 4995-5005. DOI:

Mudassar S, Ali M, Kiran N, Paracha HM, Nayyar M. Prevalence and antibiogram profile of uropathogensin a tertiary care hospital. Pak J Med Health Sci. 2022; 2(2): 867-9.

Fenta A, Dagnew M, Eshetie S, Belachew T. Bacterial profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of urinary tract infection among clinically suspected children attending at Felege-Hiwot comprehensive and specialized hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A prospective study. 2020. DOI:

Shaikh N, Morone NE, Bost JE, Farrell MH. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in childhood. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008; 27(4): 302–8. DOI:

Abubakar, Muhammad. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections at the Specialist Hospital, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Clin Med Res. 2009; 1(1): 1-8.

Prakash D, Saxena RS. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract infection in Urban community of Meerut City. India. Microbiol. 2013: 1-13. DOI:

Tryphena, C, Sahni R.D, John S, Jeyapaul S, George A, Helan J. et al. A retrospective study on the microbial spectrum and Antibiogram of uropathogens in children in a secondary care hospital in rural Vellore, South India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2021; 10(4): 1706.


Bhargava K, Nath G, Bhargava A, Kumari R, Aseri GK, Jain N, et al. Bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of uropathogens causing urinary tract infection in the eastern part of Northern India’, Front Microbiol. 2022; 13. DOI:

Al Benwan K, Jamal W. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections in children in a General Hospital in Kuwait: A 5-year retrospective study. Med Principles Pract. 2022; 31(6): 562–9. DOI:

Iqbal Z, Sheikh AS, Basheer A, Hafsa H Tul, Ahmed M, Sabri AN, et al. Antibiotic Drug Resistance Pattern of Uropathogens in Pediatric Patients in Pakistani Population. Antibiotics. 2023; 15; 12(2): 395.


Hoberman A, Wald ER, Hickey RW, Baskin M, Charron M, Majd M, et al. Oral versus initial intravenous therapy for urinary tract infections in young febrile children. Pediatr. 1999; 104(1), 79–86. DOI:

Neuhaus TJ, Berger C, Buechner K, Parvex P, Bischoff G, Goetschel P, et al. Randomized trial of oral versus sequential intravenous/oral cephalosporins in children with Pyelonephritis’, European J Pediatr. 2007; 167(9): 1037–47. DOI:

Garrido D, Garrido S, Gutierrez M, Calvopina L, Harrison AS, Fuseau M. et al. Clinical characterization and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli in pediatric patients with urinary tract infection at a third Level Hospital of Quito, Ecuador’, Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México. 2017; 74(4), 265–271. DOI:

Sangeda RZ, Paul F, Mtweve DM. Prevalence of urinary tract infections and antibiogram of uropathogens isolated from children under five attending Bagamoyo District Hospital in Tanzania: A cross-sectional study. F1000Research, 2021; 10: 449. DOI:

Gharavi MJ, Zarei J, Roshani-Asl P. Comprehensive study of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence in bacteria isolated from urine samples, Scientific Reports. 2021; 1(1). DOI:

Calzada C, Correa AJJ, Gonzalez JC, Moreno JE, Biosca DR, Perez-Tanoria R, et al. Urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates in Saint Joseph Kitgum Hospital, Kitgum, Uganda. Antibiotics. 2022; 11(4): 504.


Bankar N. Comparative antibiogram of Escherichia coli isolated from the urinary tract infection in patients from Tertiary Care Hospital. J Pharm Res Int. 2021; 123–128. DOI:

Hussain T, Moqadasi M, Malik S, Zahid AS, Nazary K, Khosa SM, et al. Uropathogens antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance pattern from outpatients in Balochistan, Pakistan. Cureus. 2021; 13(8): e17527.


Sohail M, Shahid MA, Sajjad K, Ayub M, Akram Q, Alyas et al. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and drug resistance among infants and children in Pakistan. J Pharm Res Int. 2021; 33(33A): 125–31.